Inverted T bypass: a solution for distal revascularization in the absence of an adequate autologous vein graft.




Chronic Limb-Threatening Ischemia, Open revascularization, Infrapopliteal disease, Tibioperoneal disease, Peripheral arterial disease


Introduction: Peripheral arterial disease has become a worldwide problem, with chronic limb-threatening ischemia(CLTI) being its most extreme manifestation. Recently, endovascular strategies evolved and became the first approach in many revascularization procedures. However, infrapopliteal (IP) disease is still a therapeutic challange.1–3

This study aims to present a surgical technique, named inverted T bypass, that can be applied to patients with: an IP artery with poor collateralization to the foot, an inframalleolar artery with poor runoff and availability of only a short venous graft.4

Methods: A single-center retrospective analysis of all patients submitted to inverted T bypass. The end points of the present study were limb-based patency(LBP), primary patency(PP) and secondary patency(SP) rates, freedom from CLTI, recurrence of CLTI, freedom from major index limb amputation, amputation free-survival, and overall survival.

Results: A total of twenty-five patients with CLTI (68% male) with a median age of 77 years were submitted to 25 inverted T bypasses. The median follow-up was 25 months(interquartile range of 32). Twenty-one preoperative angiographies were performed. Severe femoropopliteal (FP) and IP anatomic patterns(GLASS FP and IP grade 4) were predominant(57% and 86%, respectively) with 100% of limbs classified as GLASS stage III. Three patients(12%) had previously failed endovascular treatment. LBP, PP and SP were, respectively, 75%, 75% and 79% at 1 year, and 61%, 61% and 64% at 2 years. After one year, 86% of the limbs were free from CLTI and 79% of them remained without recurrences during a follow-up of 2 years. Eighty-one percent of the patients were free from major index limb amputation at 2 years.

Conclusion: The inverted T bypass is a creative surgical solution for CLTI patients with poor runoff and lacking an adequate venous graft. The results are promising, rendering this technique a viable option for distal and ultra-distal revascularization in complex cases.


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How to Cite

Duarte A, R. Soares T, Cabral G, Costa T, Tiago J, Gimenez J, Cunha e Sá D. Inverted T bypass: a solution for distal revascularization in the absence of an adequate autologous vein graft. Angiol Cir Vasc [Internet]. 2023 Nov. 26 [cited 2024 Feb. 25];19(3):171-7. Available from:



Original Article