Sex disparities in peripheral arterial occlusive disease
Keywords:Peripheral arterial occlusive disease, Sex disparities, Gender research, Epidemiology
INTRODUCTION: Recently published studies on peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) have revealed marked sex disparities in patient selection and treatment outcomes. In a recent retrospective study with data from 11 different countries, Portugal was highlighted as one of the countries with greater sex discrepancies related to PAOD treatment. We aimed to analyze sex specific differences in the treatment of symptomatic PAOD, concerning different variables, in a single hospital center, in Portugal.
METHODS: Data on treatment of symptomatic PAOD patients from October 1st, 2020, to December 31st, 2021, were retrospectively collected from clinical registries from a single hospital center in Portugal. Different variables and post-operative outcomes were analyzed dichotomized by sex, with descriptive statistics. Statistical analyses were conducted using the IBM Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software v28.
RESULTS: A total of 220 patients, 15,9% female and 84,1% male, were treated for PAOD, in the selected period, in a hospital center from Portugal. Female patients were older (mean age of 73.8 years versus 69.5 years in male); were less likely to be treated for intermittent claudication (3% versus 6% of men); more often treated at a more advanced stage of the disease with trophic lesions (91% versus 74% of men); more likely to be offered primary major amputation (14% versus 3% of male patients); less likely to be taking statins as part of PAOD medical management (65.7% versus 77.8% of male); and had a higher 90-day mortality rate (17.1% versus 6.5% in men). They were also more frequently treated with endovascular procedures (40%) than with OSR (26%).
CONCLUSION: Remarkable sex discrepancies in the treatment of PAOD were found in our hospital center. This study brings awareness to the scientific medical community for sex disparities in the management of patients with PAOD.
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