Blunt traumatic injuries of thoracic aorta and supra-aortic trunks - a narrative review
Keywords:Aortic injury, Blunt thoracic trauma, TEVAR, Thoracic aorta, Supra-aortic trunks
INTRODUCTION: Blunt thoracic aortic injuries (BTAI) are defined as a tear in the thoracic aorta caused by a high energy blunt trauma. The most common reported mechanism of injury is motor vehicle accidents, and it can be potentially lethal. The Society for Vascular Surgery (SVS) and the European Society for Vascular Surgery (ESVS) guidelines recommend thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) as the first line treatment for BTAI. Other controversies regarding BTAI management were reported in the literature, such as the best treatment for minimal aortic injuries with intimal tear, ideal stent graft oversizing, best timing for treatment and necessity to cover the left subclavian artery (LSA). The purpose of this review is to identify and analyze appropriate studies published so far about the management of BTAI.
METHODS: We performed a thorough electronic search of the literature using PubMed and Embase databases. We used the following combination of key words in our search strategy ((aortic injury) AND (blunt thoracic trauma)) AND (vascular surgery* OR treatment* OR TEVAR*). Articles not in English were excluded. The primary subject was results of endovascular treatment. Secondary subjects were indications and results of OSR, best timing for intervention, ideal graft oversizing, need for left subclavian artery (LSA) coverage, and management of BTAI grade I (intimal tear).
RESULTS: Data related to our primary and secondary subjects were extracted from the selected articles. TEVAR is considered the primary treatment for BTAI, if the patient has suitable anatomy, with good short and mid-term outcomes, with lower mortality and paraplegia rates at short and mid-term follow-up, compared to OSR. Despite good term results at short-term follow-up after TEVAR, long-term outcomes are still a concern. OSR is still a valid option in selected cases, and it should be considered for patients whose injury location is unsuitable for the endovascular approach. In most patients with BTAI, it is recommended around 10% of graft oversizing. However, a more aggressive approach with oversizing between 10-20% should be considered for patients with considerable hypotension and even >20% for patients presenting with severe hypotensive hemorrhagic shock. A necessity of LSA coverage has been reported in 30% of TEVAR for urgent treatment of BTAI, and it seems to be well tolerated. We should considered expectant approach with serial follow-up CT scans in patients with BTAI grade I injuries with asymptomatic intimal aortic tear.
CONCLUSIONS: This literature review reports and synthetizes published data about the management strategies for BTAI. TEVAR seems to be effective in the treatment of BTAI, with few complications and good outcomes at short and mid-term follow-up, and it should be the first-line treatment for these patients. OSR should be an option when a patient’s injury is not suitable for endovascular approach.
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