ENDOVASCULAR REPAIR OF AN ABDOMINAL AORTIC ANEURYSM IN A PATIENT WITH COEXISTENT HORSESHOE KIDNEY
Introduction/Aims: Horseshoe kidney (HSK) is a renal malformation that results from the kidney's fusion in midline. It is an unusual entity that rarely coexists with Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA). Because of the anatomical characteristics (intimate relationship between kidney and aorta, variability in the renal arteries, veins and collecting systems emergency) conventional surgery can be technically difficult. Endovascular treatment has emerged as a therapeutic alternative in some cases of congenital renal malformations. We report a case of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) in a patient with coexistent AAA and HSK.
Material / Methods: We review a case of a patient with coexistent AAA and HSK treated by EVAR in our institution with description of diagnosis, treatment, outcome and complications.
Results: A 74-year-old man was referred to our center with an assymptomatic AAA. He had medical history of ischemic heart disease, congestive heart failure and smoking. CT angiography revealed an infrarenal AAA, with 57mm diameter and HSK. After studying anatomical features, the patient was proposed for EVAR. Under general anesthesia both femoral arteries were exposed. An Endurant® II endoprosthesis was deployed immediately distal to an accessory renal artery and two iliac extenders were deployed in the left and one in the right side. Control angiography found an image compatible with endoleak type1 so a new dilatation of the proximal colon with Reliant® balloon was performed. In the final control angiography there was still some reflux into the aneurysmal sac which was interpreted as probable endoleak type 2. Postoperatively angioCT revealed endoleak type 1 which led to reintervention with implantation of an aortic extender Endurant®, with good result. In control angioCT there was no evidence of endoleak and all renal arteries were patent.
Conclusions: EVAR has clear advantages in cases of coexistent AAA and HSK, anatomically complex for conventional surgery. Although renal vasculature in these patients is very variable, sometimes with accessory arteries responsible for vascularization of considerable percentages of parenchyma. Thus, preoperative planning is essential to assess the need to exclude accessory renal arteries and consider, individually, the risk / benefit ratio.
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